whole steps and half steps :
progressing upward or downward one note at a time regardless if its a flat a sharp or neither from beginning to end, is a half step.
progressing upward or downward, beginning from a flat a sharp or neither, two notes at a time (with a note in between regardless if its a flat a sharp or neither) is a whole step.
there are 2 main scales :
major(happy) W – W – H – W – W – W – H (when starting in the key of ‘C’, it progresses CDEFGABC without sharps or flats)
minor(dark) W – H – W – W – H – W – W (when starting in the key of ‘C’, it progresses CD[Eb]FG[Ab][Bb]C
What is there to notice? That both scales follow the same pattern:
- w-w-h-w-w-w-h but they are start at different notes
- they both have all notes CDEFGABC, with the minor scale, E, A and B are flat
*in a scale only use an alphabet letter once
major & minor chords use the 1st tone, 3rd tone and 5th tone of their respective scales:
‘C’ major triad : [C] = 1, D = 2, [E] = 3, F = 4, [G] = 5, A = 6, B = 7, C = 8
‘C’ minor triad : [C] = 1, D = 2, [Eb] = 3, F = 4, [G] = 5, Ab = 6, Bb = 7, C = 8
circle of fourths/fifths
(Clockwise) : C|G|D|A|E|B(Cb)|Gb(F#)|Db(C#)|Ab|Eb|Bb|F|C
(Counter-clockwise) : C|F|Bb|Eb|Ab|Db(C#)|Gb(F#)|B(Cb)|E|A|D|G|C